LASER is an abbreviated form of "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". It is an instrument which produces coherent and monochromatic light beam, which is uniform in nature and can be focused to very small and far off objects as well. Laser produces either pulsed or continuous output and has a number of applications in various fields. There is an important phenomena related to LASER called 'Population Inversion' which has been described below....

A quadratic function is of form y = ax² + bx + c where a ≠ 0 and a, b, c are real number. Graph of quadratic functions are always a parabola either opening upwards or downwards. To plot graph of any quadratic function, we need answers of these question What is sign of ‘a’ or coefficient of x2 in quadratic function? Whether the graph of quadratic function intersects with x-axis? And if it does at what point does it intersect?

The two point sources or two spectral lines of equal intensity are just resolved by a optical instrument when the central maximum of the diffraction pattern due to one falls on the first minimum of the diffraction pattern of the other. A a parallel beam of light of wavelength λ and λ + dλ be incident, normally on a plane transmission grating element (a + b) and total number of rulings 'N'. Let the diffracted beam be received by the telescope objective L. the total width is N (a + b) and total aperture of telescope objective is....

Let z = (a + i b) be any complex number. The nth root of complex number z is given by z1/n where n → θ (i.e. set of rational numbers). Convert the given complex number, into polar form. Add 2kπ to the argument of the complex number converted into polar form. Raise index 1/n to the power of z to calculate the nth root of complex number.

Centrifugal Force is the force that comes into play when a body is moving in a circular path, and keeps the tendency to regain its natural straight line path. It is the natural tendency of a body that it moves uniformly along a straight line.If centripetal force is applied on the body,it is forced to move along a circle,but is has constant tendency to regain its natural straight line path....

An array is an ordered arrangement of data elements of similar type.In case of an array, each variable name stores one entity (number or character) within itself. An array is actually another variable which collectively holds group of similar quantities that are, of similar type. An array may consist of some datatype elements.For example, only integers, floats or characters. Index of an array always starts with ‘0’. Array is stored in contagious memory locations and is also known as Subscribed Variable.

When an ordinary ray of light is passed through a calcite crystal, it is broken up into two rays: The ordinary ray which is polarized and has its vibrations perpendicular to the principle section of the crystal and then extra ordinary ray which is polarized and its vibration parallel to the principle section. If by some optical means one of the two rays eliminated the ray emerging through the crystal will be plane polarized. In Nicol Prism ordinary ray is eliminated extra ordinary ray, which is plane polarized, is transmitted through the prism.

The dispersive power of a diffraction grating is defined as the rate of change of the angle of diffraction with the wavelength of light ....

According to the electromagnetic theory of light, a light wave consists of electric and magnetic vectors vibrating in mutually perpendicular directions both being perpendicular to the direction of propagation of light. According to the electromagnetic theory of light, a light wave consists of electric and magnetic vectors vibrating in mutually perpendicular directions both being perpendicular to the direction of propagation of light....

Concept of Mass is defined as quantity of matter contained in a body. The mass of a body is actually the quantity of matter in it, which can never be zero. There are two different kinds of masses of a body. The values of the two types of masses of a body are same. Inertial mass of a body is the measure of inertia and gravitational mass of a body is a measure of gravitational pull....

According to Einstein ‘Time is what a clock reads’. Any phenomenon that repeats itself regularly can serve as a measure of time. Human heart which beats regularly, rotation of earth around its axis, revolution of earth around the sun are some examples of repetitive phenomena’s, which serve as measures of time.

The production of technologies based on genetic engineering is often referred as modern biotechnology. With the improvement of genetic engineering ....