Humulin is synthetic human insulin prepared by using genetic engineering. Humulin is manufactured from DNA sources in laboratory, using recombinant DNA technology. Synthetic insulin is also called genetically engineered insulin. The synthetic insulin (humulin) is as effective as hormone insulin secreted by human pancreas.
A cloning vector is a DNA molecule in which foreign DNA can be inserted or integrated and which is further capable of replicating within host cell to produce multiple clones of recombinant DNA. Such a vector is called Cloning Vector. Plasmids and phages are the vectors used for cloning purposes, particularly in prokaryotes (bacteria).
Genetic engineering also called as recombinant DNA technology, facilitates the manipulation and duplication of DNA pieces, for industrial, medical and research purposes. “Engineering” word in genetic engineering is assigned for designing, construction and manipulation according to a set plan. The benefits of genetic engineering have been realized in wide array of fields.
A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonucleases) recognizes a specific base pair sequence in DNA called a restriction site and cleaves the DNA (hydrolyses the phosphodiester backbones) within the sequence. Restriction enzymes are widely found in prokaryotes and provide protection to the host cell by destroying foreign DNA that makes entry to it .It acts as a part of defense mechanism.
Fluorine is the first chemical element of the Halogen family. It is represented by symbol F and has atomic number 9. Fluorine is an extremely reactive element and reacts with itself to form Fluorine Gas (F2 (g)) which has light yellow color. It is the 13th most abundant element by weight.
During 1813, Humphry Davy performed set of experiments and proved the presence of new element, which he called Fluorine. Though his experiments established the presence of Fluorine....
Iodine is a chemical element of the Halogen family with atomic number 53. It is represented by symbol I. It exists as diatomic solid, I2(S).Iodine is an essential part of our diet deficiency of which cause Goiter.
Chile saltpeter contains trace amount of Sodium Iodate (NaIO3) and Sodium Periodate (NaIO4) as impurity. An important property of Chile saltpeter is that it is soluble in water while its impurities....
Chlorine is an important chemical element of the Halogen family. Chlorine is represented by chemical symbol Cl and has atomic number 17. It exists as a diatomic, yellow green gas. Most abundant compound of Chlorine is Sodium Chloride (NaCl).It is a weaker oxidizing agent in comparison to Fluorine (F2)....
Bromine is a chemical element of the Halogen family with atomic number 35. It is represented by symbol Br. It is a diatomic molecule and exists as reddish brown liquid state. Bromine ion (Br-) occurs in sea water in soluble compounds form. An interesting fact about Bromine is that it is only non-metallic element which exists in liquid form.
The complex number z in geometrical form is written as z = x + iy.In geometrical representation complex number z is represented by a point P(x, y) on the complex plane or the argand plane where OA =x is x-intecept and AP=y is y-intercept.
In polar representation a complex number z is represented by two parameters ‘r’ and ‘θ’. Parameter ‘r’ is the modulus of complex number and parameter ‘θ’ is the angle which the line OP makes with the positive direction of x-axis. It is also called argument of complex number and is denoted by arg(z).Finding the value of these two parameters from parameters x and y will help us convert the complex number to polar form.
Let a + i b be a complex number whose logarithm is to be found.
Step 1: Convert the given complex number, into polar form.
Where amplitude and argument is given.
Step 2: Use Euler’s Theorem to rewrite complex number in polar form to exponential form.
There r (cos θ + isinθ) is written as reiθ. This means that
a+ i b= reiθ
Step 3: Take logarithm of both sides we get.