Archive | Biology

Coagulation – Cessation of bleeding

Blood coagulation or Hemostasis is the cessation of bleeding from a cut or several vessels. When blood is shed, it loses fluid nature in a few minutes and sets into a semisolid jelly. This phenomenon is called coagulation or clotting. On holding back, the clot retracts to a smaller volume and presses out a clear straw colored fluid called the Serum. Serum does not clot any further…..

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Krebs Cycle

Krebs cycle (also known as Citric Acid Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle) is a step wise cyclic process which is used to oxidize the pyruvate formed during the glycolytic breakdown of glucose into Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O). It also oxidizes acetyl CoA which arises from breakdown of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein. The actual Krebs cycle begins when acetyl –CoA enters into a reaction to form citric Acid. This cycle was discovered by British biochemist Sir Hans Krebs . For this he was awarded with Nobel Prize in 1953…..

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Hans Krebs

Sir Hans Adolf Krebs was a German scientist who is famously known for discovering Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs cycle. Krebs father was an ear, nose, and throat specialist. This triggered his interested in research from childhood.
Krebs discovered the catalytic role of pyruvate and also established the central role of pyruvate in overall respiration or oxidation of glucose. The citric acid cycle for production of CO2 and energy….

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Benefits of Genetic Engineering

The production of technologies based on genetic engineering is often referred as modern biotechnology. With the improvement of genetic engineering ….

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Humulin : Synthetic insulin

Humulin is synthetic human insulin prepared by using genetic engineering. Humulin is manufactured from DNA sources in laboratory, using recombinant DNA technology. Synthetic insulin is also called genetically engineered insulin. The synthetic insulin (humulin) is as effective as hormone insulin secreted by human pancreas.

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Cloning Vector

A cloning vector is a DNA molecule in which foreign DNA can be inserted or integrated and which is further capable of replicating within host cell to produce multiple clones of recombinant DNA. Such a vector is called Cloning Vector. Plasmids and phages are the vectors used for cloning purposes, particularly in prokaryotes (bacteria).

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Restriction Enzymes : Cutting DNA

A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonucleases) recognizes a specific base pair sequence in DNA called a restriction site and cleaves the DNA (hydrolyses the phosphodiester backbones) within the sequence. Restriction enzymes are widely found in prokaryotes and provide protection to the host cell by destroying foreign DNA that makes entry to it .It acts as a part of defense mechanism.

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